Professional Development

In the '2008' Category...

Charleston Conference 2008

Tuesday, December 16, 2008 8:52 am

Lauren Corbett and Carol Cramer

Hot topics:

  • Weeding due to lack of space not only in the stacks but also in the storage facility (multiple people)
  • Library workers need to focus more on adding value and meeting users needs, not just storing content (see notes from Derek Law below)
  • Redundancy in library collections is going to shrink as libraries make cooperative agreements and focus on the content that makes them unique; Special Collections is the long tail (multiple people)
  • Google/publisher settlement (see notes from Pat Shroeder below)
  • More content will be pushed up to “the cloud” (such as the Google content); OCLC is working on this — having “web-scalable” access/operation (Andrew Pace)
  • E-books (see notes from Cherubini, Sugarman, Rausch, and Breaux below)

Pre-conference that Lauren C. attended:

Weeding, Offsite Storage, and Sustainable Collection Development: Library Space & Collections 30 Years After the Kent Study (by R2 Consulting)

In working recently with Jill Gremmels at Davidson College, R2 Consulting came up with the name “disapproval plan” for a weeding method. The idea is to have some basic guidelines, much like an approval profile works for acquiring materials, but for the purpose of removing materials that do not fit a library’s collection. Too many materials can make it difficult to find the very useful items, so weeding done well can result in a more “active collection.”

From 1969-1975, a common goal was to increase the size of an academic library’s collection, but now the focus is shifting to owning materials that get used in the main circulating collection.

A case study from Portland State University was presented by Sarah Beasley. The project was large-scale and targeted “low-hanging fruit:” bound volumes of journals that were owned in electronic format, second copies, and pre-2000 imprint monographs that had not circulated in 20 years which also were held by three other libraries in a local consortium.

Notes from both Carol and Lauren:

Derek Law, discussing that a unifying theory of e-collections is missing, said that the “digital overlap strategy” is what we have now and it’s wrong. See Carol’s illustration – http://flickr.com/photos/morgantepsic/477759737/

Law shut down 4 floors at Strathclyde and used the savings from heating and other overhead to build collections. We should be adding value not just storing. Libraries need people who know how to throw things out, figure out the good stuff to keep, not only in print, but also with digital – he compared digital footprint to carbon footprint. While we know trusted repositories for print, we don’t know who it is for digital. He told of the 5 tests of the Maori (who pass info verbally and are killed if fail): 1. Receive the information with accuracy; 2. Store the information with integrity and beyond doubt; 3. Retrieve the information without ammendment; 4. Apply appropriate judgement in use of the information; 5. Pass the information on appropriately.

Pat Schroeder from AAP had a scheduled talk, but she deviated from her prepared remarks to discuss the Google settlement that had occurred the week before. Before launching into details of the settlement, Schroeder made 3 key points: 1) Quality and integrity of information is a common interest of publishers and librarians; 2) How do we survive when the public uses a commercial search engine? and 3) What is important and what is clutter? Schroeder characterized the settlement as a “win/win because 7 million books will be opened to people all over America.” Lynn has forwarded some documents to lib-l that explain the settlement in fuller detail, and Schroeder summarized the same information. Schroeder noted that a legislative solution is still desired for orphan works.

Some other quick bits from Carol:

Geoff Bilder from CrossRef advocated for a logo that would designate whether something was peer-reviewed. If developed, this logo would be in Google Scholar results, IRs, subscription databases, etc., and could be attached to XML metadata defining exactly what types of review were done (e.g. double-blind peer review, copy editing etc.).

Carol Tenopir and Michael Kurtz reported on research that demonstrates that faculty and others are reading more in the age of e-journals, even though other research may indicate that they’re citing less. For more information, you can read her blog.

A panel discussion on ONIX-PL was somewhat over my head technically, but the dream is this: publishers providing their licenses in a format that could be imported into an ERM without tedious mapping on the part of librarians.

Another panel on usability featured a speaker from EBSCO who described the various tests they conducted while developing the EBSCO 2.0 platform. Jody Condit Fagan, who has the intriguing job title of Content Interfaces Coordinator at JMU, also reported on some of the tests she has done. She has also done a lit review of usability of faceted catalogs like VuFInd. I think she’s doing important work, but the result is usually that one library benefits from an improved interface. What if the tested interface elements could become part of the turnkey product? Can we hope for that with an open source solution?

Another session reported on how students are using electronic textbooks. The study showed both “dip in/dip out” reading and whole book reading. The median session length was 12 minutes. Questions were raised as to whether the patterns they saw were new reading patterns, or if they were related to how people read in print.

A panel offered ideas for how to provide patrons with value so that our user experience will be better than Google’s. Suggestions included:

  • Embedded widgets, so for instance, patrons can search across the reference sources on the reference web page.
  • A customizable library page on university web portal (e.g. WIN) that is hooked into Registrar data. Sources pushed to the student would be connected to their majors and/or classes.
  • Articles pushed to faculty based on their publication histories.

More notes from Lauren:

From a panel session on e-books by Tim Cherubini, Tammy Sugarman (GSU), Greg Rausch (NCSU) and Ann-Marie Breaux (YBP): Georgia State (GSU) and NC State (NCSU) are both buying lots of e-books from various vendors via GOBI. GSU had some special funding to spend quickly, dedicated to e-books, and worked with YBP and liaisons to make it easy to do through GOBI, using approval slips. Sugarman noted that slips are currently the only option and Breaux explained that the hurdles of book instead of are timing of print and electronic publications

Day 1: OLE Project, Durham, NC

Tuesday, December 16, 2008 6:52 am

Day 1: OLE Project, Duke University

On Monday, December 15, Lauren C., Erik and Mary Beth attended the OLE Project , Open Library Environment Regional Design Workshop held at Duke University

The OLE Project is funded by a grant from the Andrew Mellon Foundation and is meant to design an architecture for an open source ILS.Day 1 participants began to describe critical processes.We had pre conference homework which included thinking about:1. Which feature, currently available in the ILS would we not want to live without?2.What is the biggest frustration with the ILS?3.How would you describe what an ILS is?4.If you could design an ILS today, what would it look like and how would it function?There were 50 to 60 participants from all around the south east, most from academic libraries, and one from Forsyth County Public. (Interestingly, only a handful of people from Access Departments, many more from Systems, Acquisitions and Cataloging. No one was here representing Special Collections or Preservation.)

The group work today through breakout sessions and then in the larger group, was to identify the work that was core and broad enough to be flexibly build into the ILS.There was some healthy debate about what needed to be included in the “critical” category, as well as what was to be included as “high level” enough.We had a chance to try out a 4/6 presentation wherein one participant brought forth a burning issue and discussed it for 4 minutes, then the group was given 6 minutes to comment or question the presenter.The issue the participant brought forth was the importance of creating an ILS that will support consortia, and I thought how valuable that would be as we move forward with more TALA like agreements.The last lecture of the day was describing service oriented architecture and business process modeling.Then we had a chance to practice creating a model process that included creating a process map for checking out a book and all the decision points that go into that simple process.(It was more challenging than it sounds.)

Today we are going to be doing more business process modeling.

2008 NCICU Purchasing Committee

Monday, June 2, 2008 4:02 pm

2008 NC Independent Colleges and Universities (NCICU),

Purchasing Committee Meeting, May 28-29

by Lauren Corbett and Carol Cramer

  • For the first time in the history of the group, sessions were not restricted to vendors and purchasing, which was discussed as a problem at the end of the meeting, with suggestions to divide into separate days for vendors/purchasing and other topics
  • This year information literacy was the topic for several presentations
  • References to SACS prep dominated the discussions
    • Make sure everyone knows the QEP
    • interdisciplinary learning was a SACS interest
    • feedback from users is required, not just statistics
  • Members gave demos of WorldCat Collection Analysis and RCL Web. Duke uses WCCA but RCL Web seemed to elicit the most interest, perhaps due to size of institution and cost
  • The Endeca implementation by Triangle Research Libraries Network (TRLN) was demonstrated by Derek Rodriguez (formerly Davidson College’s systems librarian). It seemed resource-heavy in terms of programmers; definitely not an out-of-the box solution for faceted searching of library catalogs.
  • NC LIVE will send the bill in early fall for 2008-09, which is a timeline change in response to requests, so that both libraries and NC LIVE have better cash flow.
  • The only new info from the SOLINET/PALINET merger update (i.e. not already on the website) is that 2 more town hall meetings are to be scheduled for NC since several were canceled due to single person sign-ups.
  • In a session on user surveys, one suggestion was to have Institutional Research help write your questions, since they are more versed in writing surveys than we are.
  • And finally… Lauren and Carol brought identical T-shirts to use as sleepwear. We had both acquired these shirts at the 2007 Charleston Conference.

Twin T-shirts

Center for Intellectual Property in the Digital Age: Conference, Day One

Thursday, May 29, 2008 7:39 am

Pre Conference Seminar: 1:00pm to 4:00pm

“The Public Domain and Fair Use” Lolly Gasaway

Lolly Gasaway discussed the purpose of copyright laws, namely to promote learning to the public, and encourage authors to create new works. The US Constitution gives Congress “the power to promote the progress of science and useful arts, (aka anything worth learning), by securing for limited times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.” The constitution was adopted in 1787 and just three years later, in 1790, the first copyright law was adopted. THAT’s how important it is.
Copyright can be affixed to any work that is creative and original, not facts or ideas. Before the copyright act of 1976, copyright needed to be applied and paid for. Copyright became automatic in 1976. The length of copyright continues to expand from 14 years, with one 14 year renewal in 1790, (and 85% of copyrighted works were not even renewed for copyright), to the present standard with the1998 amendment which allows for life of the author plus 70 years. She presented us a nifty schedule of when things pass into Public Domain at http://www.unc.edu/~uncing/public-d.htm . The rights of the copyright holder include the right to limit reproduction and distribution, adaptation, performance, display. Once it passes into the Public Domain, it becomes available for any of these uses, without needing to seek permission from copyright holder.
Works become public domain: 1.) when the copyright has expired, 2) if published before copyright law was enacted. 3) for materials where the author never claimed copyright (pre 1976), 4) never entitled to copyright protection because they are not “original or creative”, 5) things created by the federal government, (but surprisingly, many states DO copyright and control distribution of their works.) 6) earlier statutes put all works by foreign nationals into the Public Domain, (ie, Charles Dickens works were never covered by copyright here in the US since they were published in Britain.) When a new preface is written on a work that has passed into the Public Domain, (ie a new edition of Jane Eyre is published) then only the preface is covered by the copyright. The work is still in the Public Domain.
To determine if a work is in the Public Domain, start with the chart of copyright dates. If it pre dates those cut offs, it is in the Public Domain. Then use Copyright Office online records, and then contact the publisher/author. Services, ie Thomson, also exist, and, while expensive, can get the answer much faster than the copyright office. Restoration of copyright once something has progressed into the Public Domain is also possible, but it isn’t automatic. Restoration requires an action on the part of the copyright holder. If a work was adapted from a work that was in the Public Domain and then was pulled back into a Copyrighted status, (ie a movie was made of a CS Lewis book while it was in the Public Domain, but now the book has copyright protection again) the adapter must pay reasonable royalties to the copyright holder for future sales, but not past sales.
Orphan works (works which no one can discern who owns the copyright even after a significant search), legislation is in congress now, and may pass. It will allow for users of orphan works to use the work as they intend, but will have to pay reasonable royalties should any copyright holder come forth in the future. Photographers and textile designers object to this legislation, but it seems to be enjoying enough support in Congress to pass before Summer, 08.
Fair use is described as the safety valve of copyright. Determining if a work is useable for your purposes under the terms of “fair use” an evaluation must be done to see if the use predominately meets the criteria of the four “fair use factors”: Purpose and character of the use, (ie is it for education or profit); Nature of the copyrighted work, (book, article, digital media); amount and substantiality used, (ie a chapter of a book, a line of a poem); and the Market effect, (ie will the author suffer a loss of profit.) Determining “fair use” has problems because it is so often claimed, and so few court decisions have been made to evaluate. Guidelines have been established to assist with determining fair use, but they are not case law and it’s still all hard to establish. Libraries who are utilizing “fair use” to make an argument to use copyrighted materials should strive to find an exception in ss 108 of the copyright law instead.
The future? Congress listens to money and the copyright industries of publishers and authors have it…not the libraries. So expect that Copyright terms to continue to lengthen.

Notes from the Keynote: 7:00pm
James Boyle, Duke University School of Law
Copyright 2.0? Re-emagining Copyright in a World of User-Generated Content

James Boyle was a very interesting speaker and he had the audience engaged and involved and laughing at the painful truths of exactly how un-helpful current copyright law is and how inadequate it is to control use and distribution in a digital age. These are pieces of his keynote. He was too quick and my fingers are too slow to do him justice.

As technologies of reproduction and production have advanced, so has the number of infringements of copyright. In the 1940s, copyright infringement was virtually impossible, or at least difficult, because even copy machines weren’t invented yet or widely available. Since the 1970s and 1980s and into today, producers of unique content have had many more opportunities to have their copyright rights infringed upon. Jessica Litman noted that copyright law is always written by those that are most affected: publishers, movie makers, song writers.
What’s wrong with copyright law? People believe that the limitations of copyright are unjust. And copyright holders frequently don’t pursue violators because an individual violator is too insignificant. Content is unprotected. Quite profound social and cultural goods are involved, and they have no real protection.
When copyright law was first written, copyright holders had exclusive use over their works for a very short period. Fourteen to 28 years. Now ALL works are protected for a much longer time, on average 95 years. All works are automatically protected even if they are not commercially viable. Two percent of copyrighted works are actually commercially successful. Ninety eight percent are held hostage, even the 50% of works that are orphaned during that time.
Copyright law undermines its own goals. It always says no, and harms its own legitimacy. Like an adolescent kid testing his parents, the public reacts to his by saying, “if you are always saying “no” then it must be worth it to me to not listen to you.” Morality is a better enforcer than the police. We don’t have the tools to be everywhere and control every infringement.
Two conflicting paths are before us. One allows for increases in new technology to be met with increases in monitoring and enforcement. This supports those that feel that their copyright rights are just as protectable today as they were in the 1940s. The other thought is to adjust copyright to allow non-commercially viable materials to pass immediately into the Public Domain. If the copyright holder isn’t making money on it, then why can’t the rest of us copy, distribute and use the material now. Secondarily, for the 2% that are commercially viable, let others use the material and alter or change it to their own liking (ex: the YouTube video “George Bush Don’t care about black people” that was released with 4 days work and $5 in materials, and criticized the governments failed policy to respond to Katrina in a powerful and timely way. The video, which violated copyright because it used samples of music still under copyright, began the movement to get greater assistance for victims, and was viewed over 1million times on the internet.), if money is made in such an alteration, allow for royalties to freely flow back to the original copyright holder.
James Boyle’s views were refreshing and had a hopeful tone. He sounded so logical and took into consideration all of today’s digital copyright issues. I long for the day when such views as this will dominate Congress’ discussions on copyright.


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